GLOSSARY

 

ADD
Attention Deficit Disorder. See also ADHD.

ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A biological disorder characterised by Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity.

Amblyaudia   
Hearing weakness on one side on dichotic auditory tests. Read more about Amblyaudia »

APD
Auditory Processing Disorder.  APD refers to difficulties in the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system and the neurobiologic activity that underlies that processing and gives rise to the electrophysiologic auditory potentials. Also referred to as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD). Read more about Auditory Processing Disorder »

Attention Deficit Disorder
see Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A biological disorder characterised by Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity. Read More.

Audiological
Pertaining to the profession of audiology.  Audiological tests are specialised hearing tests used by audiologists in hearing measurement and diagnosis of hearing disorders.

Audiologist
“An audiologist is a person who, by virtue of academic degree, clinical training, and license to practice and/or professional credential, is uniquely qualified to provide a comprehensive array of professional services related to the prevention of hearing loss and the audiologic identification, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of persons with impairment of auditory and vestibular function, and to the prevention of impairments associated with them. ….

The central focus of the profession of audiology is concerned with all auditory impairments and their relationship to disorders of communication. Audiologists identify, assess, diagnose, and treat individuals with impairment of either peripheral or central auditory and/or vestibular function, and strive to prevent such impairments.  …..

The audiologist is an independent practitioner who provides services in hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices and other settings in which audiologic services are relevant (American Academy of Audiology).” See full definition of Audiologist at audiology.org »

Audiology
The study of hearing disorders, including evaluation of hearing function and rehabilitation of patients with hearing impairments.

Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometry (ABR)
Audiological test in which electrical responses to sound in the brainstem are recorded via electrodes applied to the head.

Auditory Discrimination
The process of distinguishing differences between sounds.

Auditory Memory
Recall of information that has been heard. Often refers to recall of spoken information.  Impaired short term auditory memory (impaired recall of information immediately after it has been heard) is a frequent component of APD. Read more on Hearing Skills Affected by APD »

Auditory Neuropathy/Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
A hearing disorder resulting from abnormal transmission of signals from the inner ear (cochlea) to the brainstem.  Technically described as the disorder characterized by evidence of normal cochlear outer hair cell (sensory) function and abnormal auditory nerve function.

Auditory Pattern Processing
Auditory pattern processing (or recognition) is the ability to recognise and distinguish patterns of sound.

Auditory Potentials
Electrical signals within the auditory system evoked by sound.

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)
APD refers to difficulties in the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system and the neurobiologic activity that underlies that processing and gives rise to the electrophysiologic auditory potentials. Also referred to as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD).   Read more about Auditory Processing Disorder »

Auditory Temporal Ordering
Auditory temporal ordering or sequencing refers to the ability to recognise the order of sounds in a sequence, eg phonemes in words, intonation in speech, notes in a musical phrase, and to integrate sounds in a correct sequence or meaningful combination, for example in speech.  Mixing up the order of syllables in a word is an example of incorrect temporal sequencing.

Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory temporal processing refers to the ability to perceive and analyse acoustic events over time.  It includes the perception of changes in sounds over time (including the rapid changes that occur in some speech sounds). It includes perceiving sounds as separate when they quickly follow one another. It includes auditory pattern recognition, appreciation of the pattern of sounds over time.

Autism
Autism is a complex developmental disability that causes problems with social interaction and communication.  Symptoms usually start before age three and can cause delays or problems in many different skills that develop from infancy to adulthood. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development). Read more about Autism »

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioural challenges.  People with ASDs handle information in their brain differently than other people. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) Read more about the Signs and Symptoms of ASD »

Behavioural Tests
Audiological tests in which the patient makes a voluntary response such as repeating back words heard or signalling that a signal has been heard.  Electrophysiological tests on the other hand directly record physiological events such as far-field electrical signals from the brain (via electrodes on the head), or acoustic or pressure changes from the inner or middle ear (via a probe in the outer ear).

CAPD
see Auditory Processing Disorder

Central Auditory Processing Disorder
see Auditory Processing Disorder

Central Auditory System
The parts of the auditory system located in the brainstem and brain.

Cognitive
Relating to cognition, the ability to know, think and reason.  Cognitive skills include the brain skills involved in thinking, learning and remembering.

Conductive Hearing Loss
Hearing loss in the outer or middle ear impeding the transmission of sound to the inner ear (cochlea).

Cortical Response
Electrical response to sound at the cortex of the brain measured by electrodes on the head.

Dichotic
A listening condition in which different auditory stimuli (usually speech) are presented simultaneously to the left and right ears.

Digit Span
A measure of short term memory span, specifically the longest list of digits that an individual can recall and repeat back in the correct sequence.  For APD testing the digit sequences are presented auditorily.

Dyslexia
A learning disorder affecting the ability to recognise and comprehend written words.  

Electrical Response Audiometry
Electrophysiological tests such as Auditory Brainstem Audiometry or Cortical Response Audiometry in which electrical responses to sound within the brain are measured via electrodes on the head.

Electrophysiological Tests
Electrophysiological tests directly record physiological events such as far-field electrical signals from the brain (via electrodes on the head), or acoustic or pressure changes from the inner or middle ear (via a probe in the outer ear).

FMRI
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  A method of measuring and displaying brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.

Gap Detection
Detection of a brief time gap, usually a few thousandths of a second, in a tone or noise burst.

Inhibition
The suppression or blocking of neural signals.

Intonation
Pitch or tone variation in speech.

Lateralisation
The term lateralisation is used to describe the tendency for some functions to be located primarily (though not usually entirely) on one side of the brain.

Literacy
The ability to read, write and understand the symbols used in communication.

Localisation
Auditory localisation, sometimes called spatial hearing, is the ability to locate the direction of an auditory signal.  This ability is closely linked to the ability to distinguish speech from one direction against competing speech from another direction.

Neuroplasticity
The ability of the brain to restructure or reorganize itself by forming new neural connections or circuits.  Neuroplasticity assists individuals to recover from injuries to the brain and to develop new or improved skills.

Otitis Media
Middle ear disease, common in childhood, involving fluid and/or infection in the middle ear (the cavity behind the eardrum connecting the eardrum to the inner ear or cochlea).

Peripheral
Not central.  The ear is a peripheral component of the auditory system as distinct from the central auditory system in the brain.

Phonological Awareness
The ability to detect, discriminate between, and manipulate the sounds of language.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Hearing loss in the inner ear ie cochlea (sensory) or the auditory nerve (neural).

Sensory Deprivation
Lack of stimulation of one or more of the senses.  Deafness causes sensory deprivation of the auditory system.

Short Term Auditory Memory
Ability to recall something just heard, such as spoken information.

Spatial Hearing
The ability to locate sounds in space, also referred to as localisation.  This ability is closely linked to the ability to distinguish speech from one direction against competing speech from another direction.

Speech Language Therapist
A Speech Language Therapist (SLT) is a university graduate health professional specialising in human communication, its development, and its disorders. An SLT carries out measurement and evaluation of language abilities, speech production and swallowing problems, and provides treatment for speech and language disorders. (adapted from Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition, 2009, Elsevier)

Unilateral
One-sided, as in deafness in one ear only, or sounds presented to one ear only.